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Michael R. H. Swanson, Ph. D.
Office: GHH  215
Phone:  ext. 3230
Hours:  T, Th, 9:30 - 10:30
M, W, 1:00-2:00 Or by Appointment
Core 102  History and the Modern World
The Idea of Democracy
Roger Williams University
T  -  TH:   GHH  205   11:00 - 12:20
T  -  TH:    GHH 106   12:30 - 1:50
Spring Semester, 2011
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Click to read Eliot's Biography
Clock  to visit the Foundation for Critical Thinking
I can start by introducing myself, I guess. I'm Mike Swanson of the American Studies and History programs in the Feinstein College of Arts and Sciences. My background is cultural history. I took my Master of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy degrees from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland Ohio, majoring in American Studies. I began here in the American Studies program in 1972 (wow, that's a long time ago). I've always had an interest in material culture (the study of things people make) as well as intellectual history, and that interest took me into the historic preservation field about twenty years ago. I proposed the first Historic Preservation major here, and I expect to continue teaching in it from time to time, though I returned to my roots here in the College of Arts and Sciences in the fall of 2000.  The last time I checked I was the  third tallest employee of Roger Williams University.
About the Core Program itself:
The Core Program at Roger Williams University centers on three recurring questions in Western thought: "Who am I?" "What can I know?, and "Based on what I know, how should I act?". No single academic experience can provide satisfactory answers to these questions: five of them, working in concert, at least introduce the perspectives, which traditionally have provided tentative answers to these questions. Core 102 uses the disciplines of History and Political Science to look at socio/political answers to the question "Who am I?", the methodology of history and political science to explore "what can I know?", and at the results of behavior based on former answers to these questions to suggest avenues of responsible action in today's society.

The course description gives an insight into the content of Core 102. It is more opaque concerning the rationale for a Core Curriculum in the first place. There was a time when the idea of a Core Curriculum would have made no sense: not because the idea seemed ridiculous, but because there was within the western world, at least, a universal agreement concerning what constituted a fit education. Throughout most of the periods we're studying, this was the case.  The link will take you to a brief (30 p.) history of higher education curriculum in the United States.  Imagine yourself entering Harvard or Yale (women you’ll have to imagine yourselves as men) and think what your four years would have been like.  Would those have been the “good old days,” from your educational perspective?
Though the content varied across time, the categories of content proved remarkably stable. It wasn't until a little over a century ago that the idea of "electives" was put forth in academic circles. The culprit was a President of Harvard University, Charles W. Eliot.  That's his  portrait to the right.

A decade or two before, the idea of specialties began: not as an undergraduate mode of investigation, but as what one did in graduate school. Here, the first American venture was based on a German model, and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore was the grand innovator. Now, of course, specialty education is shattering the cohesion of what Thomas Jefferson called the "Academical Village". Perhaps that's a bit too strong: "threatening to shatter" might be a more appropriate turn of phrase.
Each faculty member of the Core 102 team shapes the general content of the course to his or her individual interests and expertise. My sections will use different materials and in a different sequence, than you'll find in the other sections. At this stage of its development, the Internet is perhaps the most democratic medium ever invented. It is certainly the most potent educator since the invention of moveable type. I make that statement fully recognizing we've a few other means of disseminating information which have been invented since Gutenberg's day: movies, radio, television, to name the big three. Yet none of these allows the level of public access that the Internet does.

I teach two sections of this course, because I like teaching Freshmen.  Convictions about the potential of the Internet have caused me to emphasize its use in all the courses I teach, including this one. My sections of Core 102 have their own website. You're reading this on it.   Notes on each week's reading and discussion activities will be found there.  Assignments and links to additional resources will, be there, as well.  Bookmark the UR:  http/ . There will be one page of notes and assignments per week, and these will develop as the semester progresses. There will be an index on the home page at the left, with links to the page appropriate for the week’s work, and I’ll publish these one week in advance. So make sure “we’re all on the same page”.  All required reading assignments will be posted on the class website. Shortly I will cease distributing a paper version of the syllabus. Those who want to have a paper copy can print the Internet version for themselves. A printer friendly copy can be found by clicking the date/title button, top center, of the web version.
The Work Ahead

The Core Readings:
At the center of this course are a series of classic readings related to the idea, “democracy”. The earliest of these documents dates to nearly five centuries B.C.E.  The most recent dates to last spring.  Faculty refer to this collection as the “Core Canon”.(Canon is a word used to describe a collection of representative and authoritative texts on a subject, this case, Democracy.) Several years ago we began the posting the “Core Canon” online.  We won’t be using all the documents in the Core Canon:  It would be a good idea to look the list of documents over, however.  The documents are published as Portable Document Format (.pdf) files. This format is useful because it maintains formatting regardless of which browser or printer one has. Pdf. files are read by the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Most computers come with this software installed. Should you not have it, you can get it HERE.   The download is free
If you do not have a computer and printer there are machines available for use in the library and on the second floor of the Gabelli School of Business
Critical Thinking as an Academic Method.
Critical thinkers are clear as to the purpose at hand and the question at issue. They question information, conclusions, and points of view. They strive to be clear, accurate, precise, and relevant.  They seek to think beneath the surface, to be logical, and fair.  They apply these skills to their reading and writing as well as to their speaking and listening.

Richard Paul and Linda Elder,
The Foundation for Critical Thinking
One of the objectives of Core 102 is to introduce college freshmen to the kinds of thinking behaviors which are rewarded in college. These may be quite different from those which are rewarded in other environments–workplaces, for example, and even other educational levels.

There are a number of excellent sources on the Internet, including Critical Thinking on the Web. Acquiring and consistently practicing these techniques will make a significant difference in your academic success.  The Foundation for Critical Thinking has many resources available, and they’re not expensive.  You might find some of them useful to you. Get to their website by clicking on the thinker above.  There are other aids, too.  If you’re interested, drop by the office and I’ll point some out to you.

You will not have to purchase any other books for this section. Be aware that other teachers do require the purchase of supplemental readings. If you have purchased a book by mistake, you can return it to the University Bookstore for a refund if you haven't marked it up. You will need to purchase a large, three-ring, notebook. I also recommend you purchase a three-hole punch, though you can find those for use around the campus if you don't wish to make that particular investment. The central assignment for this course will be to download and annotate the required readings (using highlighters and marginal notes) according to principles I'll explain as the course progresses.  On the basis of your analysis of these readings you’ll be doing informal writing in an Online Journal.  More about that later.  The resulting notebook and journal will be graded, and the work you do here will help in the two papers you’ll write for me.
Your Responsibilities in Core 102.
1. Woody Allen once said that 90% of success in life is simply showing up.  In here, expand that idea to "showing up prepared". Being prepared means reading the readings, and annotating them before the class in which they're to form the basis for discussion. As I indicated above, each week I will prepare a study guide for the following week's work.  These will be posted to the website.  When you go to the website early in the semester you’ll notice that most of the linked web pages are empty. By the end of the semester, they'll all be filled.  At the top of each page, underneath the heading, is a large horizontal button.  That button links to a printer-friendly version of the page, for those who like that sort of thing. NOTE: THE HARD COPY VERSION IS A SIMPLIFIED AND INCOMPLETE VERSION OF THE WEB VERSION, WHICH IS LINKED TO MANY SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS.  Initially I will pass out a hard copy as well as direct your attention to the electronic copy. Shortly, however, I will stop distributing the hard copy, though it will be available to anyone who wishes to print it off.  In nearly every instance the I will have the next week's work posted to the Internet by 9:00 Thursday evening.  You are responsible for visiting the website familiarizing yourself with it before Friday’s class. It is my habit to introduce the new page and talk about it briefly. If you have any questions, just ask away..

2. Get in the habit of keeping in touch with me by e-mail.  My e-mail address is linked at the top of every online web page.  To help me keep your e-mail organized, please put your class and section in the subject line.  Fysopers can use Core Fysop, The 12:30 section can use Core section 9.  As I get to know you better I won’t need this as much, but at the beginning it will be a great help keeping you sorted.

3.  Read, analyze, and thoroughly mark up the assigned readings before the class on which the document is to be discussed.  Then, in your journal,  write briefly about what kinds of ideas the reading stimulated, questions it might have raised in your mind, points where you agreed, and/or points you disagreed with the author and his/her ideas.  Initially, these informal writings should be a minimum of one hundred words in length. Post them to your journal before class. About the first of March the minimum free writing will increase to 150 and there will be an additional increase around the first of April–you’ll have more to write about by then. (This paragraph is 193 words long).Free writing means I’m not going to be a grammar and spell-check tyrant.  However, it would still be wise to write with as much style and grace as you can.  The practice will help when it comes time to write formal papers for me. Journals are worth up to 20 points, depending on how consistently a student lives up to his/her responsibility to write before every class and the care which went into the thinking and writing.

4.  Attendance will be taken and excessive absences will have a negative effect on a person's grade.  Attendance means coming prepared.  If your copy of the assigned reading isn't in front of you, marked up for discussion, and your journal entry isn’t posted, you won't be given credit for attending.  I have a liberal policy as far as excused absences is concerned. Absence for illness is excused: I trust you to be honest about this, and I don't need a note from a doctor or nurse. I also excuse absences based on family emergency or participation in official University events (athletic participation, for example) PROVIDED I'M NOTIFIED IN ADVANCE!. IF you know you're going to be absent, put the assigned work in my electronic mailbox before your absence.

5.  This class is linked to the Blackboard system.  Every Roger Williams University student has a Blackboard account. Teachers who opt to use this system have a number of useful communications tools, including e-mailing abilities, message boards, augmented calendar possibilities and a "mailbox" which allows easy delivery of student papers. I will survey you the first class period to determine how many of you are familiar with Blackboard.  If it looks like the class needs more tuition on how to use it than I can give, I'll arrange for the blackboard administrator to come and give a tutorial. Reach Blackboard through, clicking on "My RWU” and following instructions

Evaluation and Grades
I don't like to grade, but it comes with the territory. One of my goals for this course is to help you become more articulate and persuasive in presenting your ideas at the same time you are learning to frame questions, access information and form judgments and solutions. Consequently I'm going to have you do as much writing for me as I can find time to evaluate. Your Mid-term Examination and your final examination will be done outside of class.
In terms of proportions of your grade, I expect to use the following:

Classroom Practices and Procedures
The primary objective of this course is to trace the development of a number of ideas associated with the central idea, Democracy.  Historians understand that ideas don't just "popup" out of nowhere, fully developed and isolated from what happened before.  Ideas have antecedents and ideas have consequences. Consequently, we can create "genealogies" of ideas and thereby understand them better.

While I have a general idea of which readings we’ll use, I vary the semester’s readings somewhat every semester, based on how I see the class develop and a working unit, and as I get a sense of the kind of things which will interest most of you the most.  The entire list of readings can be found at  Take a look at it and if there is something which looks particularly interesting to you, I’ll find a way to squeeze it in. Get your notebooks ASAP.  You might want to invest in a set of notebook dividers to help you keep the readings separate from each other.  (If you’re thrifty, a tape tab works just as well).  As I mentioned up page, you might find it useful to purchase a paper punch.   You have no other materials required for this course, so it shouldn’t make as big a drain on your pocketbooks as other courses sometimes do.

Attendance Policy
I do take attendance on a regular basis, using a sign-in sheet which circulates around the room. Your prepared work for the day is your passport to the assignment sheet.  To receive full credit for attendance you must prepare before class.  If you come, but come unprepared, you will receive partial credit, because you'll still be able to benefit from the work of your peers. You are responsible for making sure you sign in on the sheet. I try to be as liberal in excusing absences as I can be. Excuses for illness, family emergency, participating in school sponsored athletic events and the like are freely given, as long as I am notified by email.  I prefer to be notified in advance, if not, notify me before the next class.

Despite any absences, you are still required to keep up with what's going on. If you must be absent you can demonstrate you were prepared either by dropping off the assigned reading in my office or by coming to see me during my office hours as soon as you are able to do so.  Use the website to keep informed.  I’ll also be able to tell by looking to see what you’ve placed in your journal.

The class meets twice a week, so each unexcused absence is the equivalent of a half week's work missed.

   More than three un-excused absences will have a negative impact upon your grade.

   More than five un-excused absences and I'll suggest you withdraw from the course.
Undergraduate Pledge to Academic Integrity

We, the undergraduate students of Roger Williams University, commit ourselves to academic integrity. We promise to pursue the highest ideals of academic life, to challenge ourselves with the most rigorous standards, to be honest in any academic endeavor, to conduct ourselves responsibly and honorably, and to assist one another as we live and work together in mutual support.
For a number of years now, this pledge has been the centerpiece of the convocation which begins the fall term.  It is worthwhile taking a minute or two to reflect on what it says. The twin supports of Academic Life are collaboration and independence of thought.  In this class, there is no curve. In the largest sense, you're not in competition with each other, and to the degree that you can assist each other in learning you'll win nothing but praise from me.  For those of you in the Living Learning Community, this is the whole reason for that experiment.

Yet it is equally important that each student exercise his/her own independent judgment, and have confidence in his/her own mind.  Plagiarism defeats the whole purpose of the enterprise, and the University will not tolerate this particular form of intellectual theft.  For the university statement on plagiarism, and for a general explanation of its Academic Standards, consult the University Website.

You will learn appropriate techniques for incorporating ideas from others with your own in writing classes and elsewhere.  When in doubt about something you've written, don't hesitate to show it to me or any other professor and ask for an opinion. The Roger Williams University Writing Center is very helpful to those who make the effort to use it.  It has also posted a number of helpful documents online.

I'm looking forward to meeting you all and getting to know you.  I hope you'll be able to tell that I love the way I make a living, and that meeting with and teaching a group of students such as yourselves is as pleasurable way to spend a few hours as I can possibly imagine. Good luck this semester, and if there's anything I can do to be helpful to you, call upon me.