Core 102
The Idea of Democracy
Roger Williams University
Living/Learning Community, M, Th  2:00 - 3:20  CAS 123
Global Community, T, F 2:00 - 3:30  CAS 221 
Fall Semester, 2008
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About the Core Program itself:
The Work Ahead

The Core Readings:
Critical Thinking as an Academic Method.
Critical thinkers are clear as to the purpose at hand and the question at issue. They question information, conclusions, and points of view.  They strive to be clear, accurate, precise, and relevant.  They seek to think beneath the surface, to be logical, and fair.  They apply these skills to their reading and writing as well as to their speaking and listening.
Richard Paul and Linda Elder,  The Foundation for Critical Thinking
Your Responsibilities in Core 102
Evaluation and Grades
Classroom Practices and Procedures
Attendance Policy

I do take attendance on a regular basis, using a sign-in sheet which circulates around the room. Your prepared work for the day is your passport to the assignment sheet.  To receive full credit for attendance you must prepare before class.  If you come, but come unprepared, you will receive partial credit, because you'll still be able to benefit from the work of your peers. You are responsible for making sure you sign in on the sheet. I try to be as liberal in excusing absences as I can be. Excuses for illness, family emergency, and the like are freely given, as long as I am notified by email. 


Despite any absence, you are still required to keep up with what's going on. If you must be absent you can demonstrate you were prepared either by dropping off the assigned reading in my office or by coming to see me during my office hours as soon as you are able to do so.

Use the website to keep informed.

The class meets twice a week, so each unexcused absence is the equivalent of a half week's work missed. More than three un-excused absences will have a negative impact upon your grade. More than five un-excused absences and I'll suggest you withdraw from the course
Undergraduate Pledge to Academic Integrity

We, the undergraduate students of Roger Williams University, commit ourselves to academic integrity. We promise to pursue the highest ideals of academic life, to challenge ourselves with the most rigorous standards, to be honest in any academic endeavor, to conduct ourselves responsibly and honorably, and to assist one another as we live and work together in mutual support

For a number of years now, this pledge has been the centerpiece of the convocation which begins the fall term.  It is worthwhile taking a minute or two to reflect on what it says.  The twin supports of Academic Life are collaboration and independence of thought.  In this class, there is no curve. In the largest sense, you're not in competition with each other, and to the degree that you can assist each other in learning you'll win nothing but praise from me.  Yet it is equally important that each student exercise his/her own independent judgment, and have confidence in his/her own mind.  Plagiarism defeats the whole purpose of the enterprise, and the University will not tolerate this particular form of intellectual theft.  For the university statement on plagiarism, and for a general exposition of its Academic Standards, consult the University Website.
You will learn appropriate techniques for incorporating ideas from others with your own in writing classes and elsewhere.  When in doubt about something you've written, don't hesitate to show it to me or any other professor and ask for an opinion.  The Roger Williams University Writing Center is very helpful to those who make the effort to use it.  It has also posted a number of helpful documents online.

Michael R. H. Swanson, Ph. D.
Office:  CAS 110,
Phone:  ext. 3230
Hours:  M W. F. 1:00-2:00
T,  9:30-11:00
Learn a Little More
I can start by introducing myself, I guess. I'm Mike Swanson of the American Studies and History programs in the Feinstein College of Arts and Sciences. My background is cultural history. I took my Master of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy degrees from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland Ohio, majoring in American Studies. I began here in the American Studies program in 1972 (wow, that's a long time ago).  I've always had an interest in material culture (the study of things people make) as well as intellectual history, and that interest took me into the historic preservation field about twenty years ago. I proposed the first Historic Preservation major here, and I expect to continue teaching in it from time to time, though I returned to my roots here in the College of Arts and Sciences in the fall of 2000.
The Core Program at Roger Williams University centers on three recurring questions in Western thought: "Who am I?" "What can I know?, and "Based on what I know, how should I act?". No single academic experience can provide satisfactory answers to these questions: five of them, working in concert, at least introduce the perspectives, which traditionally have provided tentative answers to these questions. Core 102 uses the disciplines of History and Political Science to look at socio/political answers to the question "Who am I?", the methodology of history and political science to explore "what can I know?", and at the results of behavior based on former answers to these questions to suggest avenues of responsible action in today's society

The course description gives an insight into the content of Core 102. It is more opaque concerning the rationale for a Core Curriculum in the first place. There was a time when the idea of a Core Curriculum would have made no sense: not because the idea seemed ridiculous, but because there was within the western world, at least, a universal agreement concerning what constituted a fit education. Throughout most of the periods we're studying, this was the case. Though the content varied across time, the categories of content proved remarkably stable. It wasn't until a little over a century ago that the idea of "electives" was put forth in academic circles. The culprit was a President of Harvard University.

A decade or two before, the idea of specialties began: not as an undergraduate mode of investigation, but as what one did in graduate school. Here, the first American venture was based on a German model, and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore was the grand innovator. Now, of course, specialty education is shattering the cohesion of what Thomas Jefferson called the "Academical Village". Perhaps that's a bit too strong: "threatening to shatter" might be a more appropriate turn of phrase.

Core Curricula such as the one at Roger Williams University are responses to this sense of fragmentation. We are participating in an attempt to forge a universal educational experience for all members of the Roger Williams student community, regardless of major, regardless of age, regardless of the majors they take or the schools in which those majors are located. This might be a brilliant exercise: it might also be a noble folly. I have the kind of mind that can hold both of these views simultaneously. It is worth the effort, in my judgment, to bring this diverse group into a common enterprise. I'm planning to have a good time doing it.

Each faculty member of the Core 102 team shapes the general content of the course to his or her individual interests and expertise. My sections will use different materials and in a different sequence, than you'll find in the other sections. At this stage of its development, the Internet is perhaps the most democratic medium ever invented. It is certainly the most potent educator since the invention of moveable type. I make that statement fully recognizing we've a few other means of disseminating information which have been invented since Gutenberg's day: movies, radio, television, to name the big three. Yet none of these allows the level of public access that the Internet does.

This year especially my sections of Core 102 are going to diverge from each other.  Section 19 will welcome many international students.  I’m delighted that you’re going to be with us, and I hope we form our own little global community as we share ideas and insights from so many backgrounds.  (I’ve taken a look at the roster–it is going to take awhile to learn your patient with me and don’t laugh too hard at my pronunciation mistakes) Section 22, is part of a new “Living/Learning Community.”  Students in that section will not only share this class (and Introduction to Academic Writing as well) but living quarters, too.

The content of the two sections will be quite similar, but the schedules will be a little different from each other, as there are calendar complications do deal with as well as differences in the makeup of the two groups.  (For example, the week of the Columbus Day Holiday one section will have one meeting, the other two.)

My convictions about the potential of the Internet have caused me to emphasize its use in all the courses I teach, including this one. My sections of Core 102 have their own website:
Notes on each week's reading and discussion activities will be found there. Assignments and links to additional resources will, be there, as well. Bookmark the URL. There will be one page of notes and assignments per week, and these will develop as the semester progresses. These will differ by section.  So make sure you read the right page. All required reading assignments will be posted on the class website. Shortly I will cease distributing a paper version of the syllabus. Those who want to have a paper copy can print the Internet version for themselves. A printer friendly copy can be found by clicking the button, top center, of the web version.
At the center of this course are a series of classic readings related to the idea, “democracy”. The earliest of these documents dates to nearly five centuries B.C.E.  The most recent dates to January 20th, 2004.  Faculty refer to this collection as the “Core Canon”.  (Canon is a word used to describe a collection of representative and authoritative texts on a subject, this case, Democracy.)  Several years ago we began  posting the “Core Canon” online.  The experiment worked very well, and we are repeating this procedure this year.  The entire cannon can be found at  We won’t be using all the documents in the Core Canon: It would be a good idea to look the list of documents over, however.  The documents are published as Portable Document Format (.pdf) files.  This format  is useful because it maintains formatting regardless of which browser or printer one has.  Pdf. files are read by the Adobe Acrobat Reader.  Most computers come with this software installed.  Should you not have it, you can get it at   The download is free.

If you do not have a computer and printer there are free machines available for use in the library and on the second floor of the Gabelli School of Business

We will also be using this summer’s reading, The Working Poor: Invisible in America. The author, David K. Shipler, will be visiting the campus toward the end of September. Entering students should all have a copy of this book.  If by any chance you didn’t get yours, see me and I’ll see what I can do about getting one into your hands.  I’ve used this timely book in another course I teach, and  I’m very interested in meeting him and seeing what he has to say.  We won’t be discussing the book until near the end of the semester, but I’m hoping you’ve got a good start on it already, and will have it read by 27 September (when Shipler visits campus) in order that you have the background to get the most out of his lecture.
One of the objectives of Core 102 is to introduce college freshmen to the kinds of thinking behaviors which are rewarded in college. These may be quite different from those which are rewarded in other environments–workplaces, for example, and even other educational levels. 

There are a number of different Critical Thinking techniques.  There are a number of excellent sources on the internet, including Critical Thinking on the Web. Acquiring and consistently practicing these techniques will make a significant difference in your academic success. The Foundation for Critical Thinking has many  resources available, and they’re not expensive.  You might find some of them useful to you.  Check them out at There are other aids, too.  If you’re interested, drop by the office and I’ll point some out to you.

You will not have to purchase any other books for this section. Be aware that other teachers do require supplemental readings. If you have purchased a book by mistake, you can return it to the University Bookstore for a refund if you haven't marked it up.  You will need to purchase a large, three-ring, notebook. I also recommend you purchase a three-hole punch, though you can find those for use around the campus if you don't wish to make that particular investment. The central assignment for this course will be to download and annotate the required readings (using highlighters and marginal notes) according to principles I'll explain as the course progresses.  The resulting notebook will be graded, and it will also form the resource for your major paper this semester.
1.  Woody Allen once said that 90% of success in life is simply showing up.  In here, expand that idea to "showing up prepared".  Being prepared means reading the readings, and annotating them before the class in which they're to form the basis for discussion.  Each week I will prepare a study guide for the following week's work.  These will be posted to a website I've created especially for this course.  You'll find that at  On the left hand side of the page is a navigation bar with links to each week's work.  You'll notice that at the time you receive this handout most of the linked web pages are empty. By the end of the semester, they'll all be filled.  At the top of each page, underneath the heading, is a large horizontal button.  That button links to a printer-friendly version of the page, for those who like that sort of thing.  NOTE: THE HARD COPY VERSION IS A SIMPLIFIED AND INCOMPLETE VERSION OF THE WEB VERSION, WHICH IS LINKED TO MANY SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS.  Initially I will pass out a hard copy as well as direct your attention to the electronic copy.  Shortly, however, I will stop distributing the hard copy, though it will be available to anyone who wishes to print it off.  In nearly every instance the I will have the next week's work posted to the Internet by 9:00 Wednesday Evening.  You are responsible for visiting the website and printing it off before Thursday’s (or Friday’s)  class.

2.  Note that there is a special e-mail address for this course:  Use this e-mail address if you need to ask me to clarify an assignment, if you need to be excused for an absence, or if you want me to preview something you're working on.
3.  Read, analyze, and thoroughly mark up the assigned readings before the class on which the document is to be discussed.  I will give these a quick glance as part of the check in process.  At the beginning of the semester, I'll do this every class period.  Later, I may elect to do this less frequently.

4.  Attendance will be taken and excessive absences will have a negative effect on a person's grade.  Attendance means coming prepared.  If your copy of the assigned reading isn't in front of you, marked up for discussion, you won't be given credit for attending.  I have a liberal policy as far as excused absences is concerned. Absence for illness is excused: Itrust you to be honest about this, and I don't need a note from a doctor or nurse. I also excuse absences based on family emergency or participation in official University events (athletic participation, for example) PROVIDED I'M NOTIFIED IN ADVANCE!.  IF you know you're going to be absent, put the assigned work in my electronic mailbox before your absence.

5.  This semester I'm linking the class to the Blackboard system. Every Roger Williams University student has a Blackboard account. Teachers who opt to use this system have a number of useful communications tools, including e-mailing abilities, message boards, augmented calendar possibilities and a "mailbox" which allows easy delivery of student papers. I will survey you the first class period to determine how many of you are familiar with Blackboard.  If it looks like the class needs more tuition on how to use it than I can give, I'll arrange for the blackboard administrator to come and give a tutorial. Reach Blackboard through, clicking on "My RWU and following instructions".

I don't like to do it but it comes with the territory. One of my goals for this course is to help you become more articulate and persuasive in presenting your ideas at the same time you are learning to frame questions, access information and form judgments and solutions. Consequently I'm going to have you do as much writing for me as I can find time to evaluate. Your Mid-term Examination will be take-home, and parts of your final examination will be take-home, as well. In terms of proportions of your grade, I expect to use the following:

SPECIAL EVENTS There will be at least one and possibly  more out-of-class events or activities which will incorporated into this syllabi.. We’ll all attend the evening event with David K. Shipler.  If there are others, they will be announced well in advance, and students will be expected to attend. There may be other recommended activities as well.  Students with schedule conflicts will be provided alternate ways to complete these requirements.

The primary objective of this course is to trace the development of a number of ideas associated with the central idea, Democracy.  Historians understand that ideas don't just "pop up" out of nowhere, fully developed and isolated from what happened before.  Ideas have antecedents and ideas have consequences.  Consequently, we can create "genealogies" of ideas and thereby understand them better.  To do this we're going to begin by identifying the principal ideas and assertions in Robert Kaplan’s Was Democracy Just a Moment?  (1997) He begins his essay with this provocative statement:
The global triumph of democracy was to be the glorious climax of the American Century. But democracy may not be the system that will best serve the world -- or even the one that will prevail in places that now consider themselves bastions of freedom.
We'll spend several class periods coming to understand the ideas in this document thoroughly and in great detail, including using our critical thinking to understand how he attempts to prove his case and convince his readers..  The remainder of the course will be devoted to investigating issues raised by Kapan, and understanding the complexities and nuances involved in the Idea of Democracy:  in order to see what relevance they may have for us, or how they're being used as the inspiration of and justification for ideas and actions in recent years.  You’ll help to identify and select those issues..
Generally my classes are pretty informal.  I talk, you talk, and out of the conversation comes knowledge of a sort.  We are not going to construct a linear narrative this semester.  I am aiming to provide you with a richer, more complex, and more sophisticated understanding of The Democratic Idea.  Much of your final understanding will result from what you piece together yourself.  Some of you will be much more comfortable with this approach than others will be, at least initially.  If you are a person who requires a lot of structure you're going to have to switch gears and trust the system I'm using.  But give the system a fair trial, and you may be surprised at how your skills grow thorugh practice.
I'm looking forward to meeting you all and getting to know you.  I hope you'll be able to tell that I love the way I make a living, and that meeting with and teaching a group of students such as yourselves is as pleasurable way to spend a few hours as I can possibly imagine. Good luck this semester, and if there's anything I can do to be helpful to you, call upon me.